Home generalCut apple tree as a spindle and trellis in shape

Cut apple tree as a spindle and trellis in shape

  • Cut apple tree as a spindle
    • plant section
    • education section
    • preservation section
    • rejuvenation pruning
  • Cut apple tree as a trellis
    • espalier forms
    • plant section
    • summer pruning
    • Spring pruning
    • preservation section
  • Cutting column or ballerina trees
    • Cut dwarf apple tree

Apple trees are cut differently. Both the purpose of the cut, as well as the age and the growth habit of your apple tree have an effect on the cutting technique or the choice of the right cutting time. The various possible forms of the tree such as the spindle, the pillar or the trellis require different measures. Here you will learn everything about the special cuts and the particular features.

For each pruning tree, a distinction is made between the planting section, parenting, conservation pruning and rejuvenation cut. All this phase has to go through an apple tree to be able to shine in the desired shape in the garden after many years. The planting section ensures the right start and the later form of the tree. After the education to this form, it must be ensured that the tree remains vital and its shape. A rejuvenation then has to be applied, the apple tree has been through many years and when it has come out of shape.

Cut apple tree as a spindle

Spindle trees are no different than normal apple trees, only their education is made differently. This species is much smaller than normal apple trees. This way they are easier to harvest, cut and maintain. They are also ideal for small gardens. An apple spindle requires only three square meters of stand space. To keep them small, they are grown on the rhizome of low-growing apple varieties. There are documents of different strengths. Most of the trees are only 2.50 to 3 m high and wear after only two years. Another advantage of these trees is that they only develop a small rootstock. However, spindle trees need a support pole all their life.

A spindle tree consists only of the center drive as a scaffold. Here, the flat-growing side shoots form the fruit shoots. A well-developed spindle is more in the shape of a cone or fir-tree, which has the advantage that all crowns receive evenly much light. The cutting of the spindle tree is necessary that the fruit wood, mainly the lower fruit shoots remain vital and that the Spitz is beautifully slender. It prevents the tree tip from growing unwantedly. That would be complications. Spindles are cut in summer. The purpose is to prevent the strong growth of the tree.

plant section

For the spindle education, a tree is needed that has five to seven circumferentially distributed, flat side shoots above 60 cm trunk height. It is important that the middle drive above the last side shoot is not longer than 60 cm. When planting all steep shoots are removed, especially in the upper part of the center drive. Do not cut the center drive and the remaining side shoots.

  1. Central drive above the last side drive must not be longer than 60 cm. He will not cut.
  2. Remove all steep shoots, especially around the center drive.
  3. Remove all shoots below 60 cm
  4. Do not cut middle and remaining side shoots.

If the central drive is not occupied by side shoots or it exceeds the last runner by more than 60 cm, it must be shortened to 60 cm. The resulting side shoots are distributed more evenly over the center drive and additionally the tree is not too high.

education section

In the case of an educational cut, it is important to completely remove all shoots that are growing steeply on the middle instep or on the lateral fruit shoots. The top of the center drive and the side shoots must be streamlined. Do not cut all remaining shoots, otherwise their growth will be stimulated. The educational cut is carried out two years in a row.

  1. Remove all shoots on the base that are growing steeply at the center drive and lateral fruit shoots
  2. Slice the tip of the center drive
  3. Runners slim
  4. Do not cut the remaining shoots
  5. Two years to do this cut

Last year's capped center drive, which had to be cut, formed some shoots below the new sequel the following summer. The shoots are steep. Except for the direct continuation of the middle, all these shoots are removed, even in the summer. The center may not be shortened for the next few years. Let flat side shoots stand.

preservation section

After three to four years, the spindle tree is fully grown. The conservation cut is limited to slimming the tips of the middrive and the lateral fruit shoots. Annual shoots are never cut, otherwise the growth is stimulated unnecessarily strong. All steep shoots beginning at the base are removed. If flat shoots grow in the upper half of the tree, which are too long and shade below growing shoots, these are also completely removed. It is important to remove expelling wild shoots as quickly as possible below the processing station. They are torn out while they are still unkempt. After a few years, usually 4 to 5, the tip of the middle drive lowers under the fruit load and at the apex young shoots form. They have to be isolated regularly. When the young shoot develops flower buds after two years, the old, overhanging tip is redirected to such a shoot.
For a spindle, make sure that the tree stays slender in the upper half, so that the lower shoots get enough light. If side shoots become too thick at their base (thicker than half the diameter of the center drive at the appropriate place), remove them so that a 2 to 5 cm long pin stops. This stimulates the new drive. If strongly overhanging, old tips of the young shoots develop, they must be rejuvenated.

  1. Slender tip of the central drive and the lateral fruit shoots
  2. Do not cut annual shoots.
  3. Remove all steep shoots beginning at the base
  4. Remove flat, too long shoots in the upper part of the tree
  5. Tear off growing wild shoots below the processing station
  6. After lowering the central drive, separate young shoots
  7. Forms the young shoot flower buds, tip redirect to him.
  8. Tree must stay slim at the top
  9. Remove too thick side shoots, but leave pegs (2 to 5 cm)

rejuvenation pruning

In a forgotten spindle tree you can see the tips of the fruit shoots hanging down. There are no high-quality fruits trained. These shoots must be redirected to at least two years, horizontally outward growing shoots. The new shoot tips are being streamlined. Remove fruit shoots that are too thick in diameter, but leave a 2 to 5 cm long cone. If the tree top hangs over itself, it must also be redirected to a shoot that grows at an angle of at least two years. Also this tip is to slim down. Very upright and too strong shoots in the upper tree area are removed directly on the trunk, always on small cones. Spindle trees are only about 20 years old. From this age, a rejuvenation cut is no longer worthwhile. It is better to raise a new tree.

  1. Overhanging, old fruit shoots for at least two years, horizontally outward growing shoots divert
  2. Slim down new shoot tips
  3. Remove excessively thick fruit shoots, let the cones stand
  4. Also divert hanging tree top on at least two-year, obliquely upwardly growing shoot
  5. slim down
  6. For upright and too strong shoots in the upper tree area on trunnions cut out

Cut apple tree as a trellis

Fruit trellises are something special. Fruit trees are brought into a geometric, almost regular form. This looks visually good, while still providing plenty of fruit. The trees are limited by a cut in growth. So you can cultivate in a small space many different types of fruit and varieties. For each trellis a stable frame is necessary. The classic trellis fruit is the pear, but apples are also excellent. Trellis apples are all refined. The main cutting in the trellis education takes place in the summer. Little is cut in the spring. There are different forms of trellis. Apples are suitable for slightly larger trellises in U-shape or long cordon.

espalier forms

In order to pull the apple tree into shape, a scaffold must be present. The distances between the individual scaffold drives or floors should not be less than 60 cm. Thus, with free standing trellises can also be reached between the floors. This facilitates cutting and harvesting on the opposite side.

Cordon trellis
In a cordon, one or two side scaffold drives are pulled horizontally. It is the classic trellis. Mostly a two-armed cordon is used, in which above the trunk one scaffold drive is led to the right and one to the left. These scaffolding drives lengthen each year. Even a one-armed cordon is possible, but is not so often educated.

The palmette is actually a branched cordon. In the U-Palmette, the center drive is removed right at the beginning. First, the scaffold drives are led along the right and left horizontally along the trellis. After one to two years, when the desired width is reached, the frame drive extensions are tied vertically upwards. This can be repeated so that several floors are created.

When selecting the right apple variety for the trellis should not be used very weak pad, but a medium strong. The tree itself should have a straight central drive and four to six strong side shoots. The shoots, which are intended as side arms, must be slightly lower than the first cross strut of the scaffold.

plant section

Immediately before sprouting, all shallow shoots, which are not required for the scaffold, are shortened to 3 to 5 cm long spigots. All steep shoots are completely removed. The two shoots, which are to form the lateral framework of the first floor, are tied flat to the first cross struts and shortened to 60 cm in length. Only in this way do all the buds along these shoots drift out. The middle drive is shortened 5 buds over the intended second floor to 60 to 80 cm.

  1. Flat shoots that are unnecessary for the scaffold cut off. Leave small cones (2 to 5 cm)
  2. Remove all steep shoots completely
  3. Connect the two scaffold drives to the first cross struts
  4. Shorten to 60 cm
  5. Central drive 5 shorten the buds above the intended second floor (60 to 80 cm)

summer pruning

In early July is the best time for a cut. All steep shoots on the central drive, below the tip, are removed directly from the trunk. Two side shoots, which are just below the second floor, may stop. They are tied to a bamboo pole at 60 degrees to the center. So their growth is calmed down a bit. They will then be tied horizontally to the scaffolding next spring. The rod is simply fastened to the frame. The same procedure is also used for the scaffolding drives on the first or lowest floor.

The young shoots of the middle growing between the two floors and those of the scaffold shoots on the first floor must be shortened if they have developed about 10 leaves. This is usually the case in June. Only four to six leaves may stop. The uppermost buds of these fruit shoots drift out again in the same summer. If they have formed 10 leaves again in July, they are cut in again, this time on only two leaves.

  1. Remove all steep shoots on the center drive, below the tip, directly at the base
  2. Two side shoots stop, just below the second floor
  3. Bind to bamboo sticks at 60 degrees to the center. These are attached to the frame
  4. Also treat the scaffolding drives the lower floor so
  5. Shorten the young shoots of the middle and the scaffold shoots of the first floor growing between the floors
  6. If you have 10 leaves, shorten to 4 to 6
  7. If they have grown back to 10 leaves, cut again, on only 2 leaves

Spring pruning

Bend the scaffolding drives of the second floor and the extension of the first floor horizontally to the column and in turn shorten the growth to 60 cm. In addition, the fruit shoots cut in last summer have to be cut. There are only four buds left on the main gears. With luck, these are already formed as flower buds. Depending on whether a third floor is desired, the center drive must be cut back to five buds above the floor. If only two floors are planned, the center drive will be removed, directly above the second floor.

  1. Connect scaffolding drives on the second floor and extension of the first floor
  2. Shorten growth to 60 cm
  3. Cutting down shredded fruit shoots on four buds last summer
  4. If the third floor is required, cut back the center drive to five buds.
  5. For just two floors, cut center drive directly above the second floor.

preservation section

For the trellis, it makes sense that the scaffolding shoots do not grow more than 60 cm in length each year. If they are too long, there are often bald spots. In the maintenance section, it must be checked how strong or weak the individual fruit shoots grow. If it grows only a little, it has to be stimulated, it grows too strong, it has to be calmed down. It is cut in the spring or summer. The cut is done annually. If the trellis is placed against a wall, shoots growing on the wall must be removed. If, after a few years at the bottom of the scaffold shoots forget the fruit shoots, a quarter of the branch must be lighted in the spring. On the other hand, neutra which drive too much at the top must be removed. It is cut to the old fruit wood. This calms growth.

  1. Stimulate weak growing shoots - cut in spring
  2. Calm fast growing shoots, cut in summer
  3. Annual cut
  4. Cut out the shoots facing the wall
  5. Fringing on the underside aging fruit shoots to a quarter
  6. Remove excessively strong shoots at the top
  7. Cut into the old fruit wood

Cutting column or ballerina trees

In contrast to apple trellis, columnar or ballerina trees need only a little cut. Even without cutting these trees remain attractive and healthy. The good thing about these apple plants is that they grow naturally narrow and just as trellises have to be educated first. Columnar or ballerina trees have a vertical high central drive, which can be up to 4 m high. From this grow the side branches. These short shoots form the fruit wood. It hardly has to be cut once. Only competition drives to the middle are to be removed. Conservation cut is unnecessary at the side shoots. When the tree ages after about 10 years, it is simply cut back by half. As a result, several young shoots form. The most vertical of them will put the new center, the others will be removed. Fruit shoots need only be shortened if they are heavily branched or verkahlt. Leave 5 to 10 cm long pins on the central drive. It is cut in early summer. The resulting young shoots should not be too long and should not grow inwards. Remove or shorten inappropriate shoots. Stay standing short shoots that match the overall shape of the tree. They form the new fruit wood.

  1. Cut in the summer
  2. Only remove competition drives to the middle
  3. No maintenance cut of the side shoots
  4. After about 10 years, the tree is going to grow, then shorten by half
  5. From the interface of the central drive only one, very straight drive as center drive can stand. Remove all others.
  6. Shorten fruit shoots if they are too branchy or old. Leave 5 to 10 cm long cones.
  7. Emerging young shoots must not be too long and do not grow inwards. If they do, they will be cut out.

Column trees always have to look slim. The lower side shoots may be a bit longer than the upper ones, otherwise growth will be out of balance. The tree then drifts up and down, but shells from below.

Cut dwarf apple tree

In contrast to the columnar apple tree, with which it is often equated, the dwarf form of the growth is a normal apple tree, so it has a normal stem and a crown on all sides. The only difference is its size. These trees are usually sold in a size of 50 to 60 cm and bloom great and can also fruit. They grow extremely slowly and are great for the vascular attitude. The apples are genetically limited and should remain so. Dwarf apples should not be cut and they do not need it either. Only inwardly growing or crossing shoots you cut out. If there are water squirts that grow upright then remove them too. The best time for it is the summer.

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